Sunday, March 22, 2020
Year Round Education Imagine a child, on a hot summer day... no baseball, no swimming, no picnics or amusement park rides. Instead of spending time doing all of the things kids like to during summer vacations, this child, is attending school. Year round education (YRE) has been around since 1904, with 3,000 schools and 2 million students currently using the program (National Association). Students in year round schools go to school the same 180 days that traditional schools attend. In YRE, the summer vacation is eliminated, replacing it with shorter, more frequent breaks. There is a number of ways the year round school can operate, including: 90/30, 45/15, and 60/20. The most popular of these calendars is the 45/15, where the year is divided into 4 nine week terms, separated by 4 three week vacations (National Association). YRE has been a debated issue in education almost since it began. Supporters of YRE say this schedule improves the learning process. The biggest debate, however, comes from the parents and teachers who believe there are no proven studies that YRE helps the learning process at all. So, is year round schooling a good choice for the education of your children? YRE will not only hurt the education system, but it will create chaos for the lives of the students attending and their families. Supporters of YRE believe year round schools are more cost effective than traditional schools. With population in some districts rising rapidly, YRE is said to reduce overcrowding of schools and classrooms. In many cases, school calendars are changed in response to population growth. By running schools all year, districts can pack in more students and postpone building new schools (Endless Summer). Supporters of YRE say that by staggering vacations and schedules, schools can increase capacity by 25-50 percent (Should Kids go). Supporters argue that the costs for the transition form a traditional calendar to year round schools are modest compared to the construction costs of new schools (Inger, Morton). However, those against YRE feel that expenses will only be reduced temporarily. According to a "Year Round Education Study" conducted by the Lewisville, Texas Independent School District, "Findings of a year-long study concluded that there is no financial benefit to operating a Single Track System. The system would cause a modest increase in operational expenses without providing any instructional benefits" (Time to Learn). In Iowa, the Carroll School Board found that the costs of the district moving to a year round education system could range from $16,786 to $32,412. Taylor Elementary School, in Cedar Rapids, spends more money according to the classroom teachers that any other elementary school. Schools in Davenport reported that the switch to YRE will cost an additional $36,000 in salaries, $3000 per year for equipment, and supplies, and $22,300 as a one time expense for teacher training. Plus, the move to YRE would also cost the district an extra $92,626 to fully air condition the school building. In Des Moines, Moulten schools spend about $80,000 annually for year round schooling. If YRE were implemented, Indianola school districts would spend an additional $3,655 for middle school and $5,000 for elementary school to pay for the additional secretarial, administrative, and custodial time during the summer (Time to Learn). Costs will not only be incurred with the schools, but also with the state and with taxpayers. Cost savings for one of these groups may create cost increases for the other (Naylor, Charlie). Contrary to what supporters of YRE claim, there are definitely extra costs to implementing and maintaining a year round education system. Supporters of YRE say that year round schools would promote continuous learning. The belief is that students forget a lot of what they learn while on long summer vacations. This is seen more in slower learning students and for those who know English as their second language. It is also thought that because students retain more when the learning process is interrupted for only short periods of time, teachers in year round schools need to spend less time reviewing pre-vacation material (Inger, Morton). Although this seems true, opponents believe that there is research that needs to be addressed. Mary Lee Smith and Gene V. Glass have done extensive research in year round schools since 1974. In a study conducted by Smith and Glass, in a school district in Colorado, the learning loss in the students was evaluated. They found that although teachers in year round schools spent less time reviewing pre-vacation material than teachers in traditional schools did, the actual achievement differences were insignificant on tests designed specifically
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Blaise Pascal was a great mathematician who lived in 17th Century France. His mother was Antoinette Begon; she died when Blaise was three. His father, Etienne took the responsibility of bringing him up. Pascal had two sisters, Gilberte and Jacqueline. Pascal began his studies in 1635 with his reading of EuclidÃ¢â¬â¢s Elements and mastered them by age 12. This won the boy respect for his great talent in mathematics. Pascal in fact did not attend school; instead, Etienne brought him to lectures and mathematical gatherings at the Ã¢â¬Å"Academie ParsienneÃ¢â¬ nearly from its founding. At the early age of 16, Pascal began to play an active role in Ã¢â¬Å"Academie ParisienneÃ¢â¬ . There, Pascal became the principal disciple of Girard Desargues, a professor working there because he was the only one who appreciated his work in geometry. Pascal began work on conics and published several papers to do with geometry. In fact, in June 1639, Pascal has already made a significant discovery with his Ã¢â¬Å"mystical hexagramÃ¢â¬ . In 1641, he began to suffer from problems of health that delayed his research for a year, but he recovered and continued his work. In 1642, Pascal began to create a machine that would be similar to an everyday calculator to help his father with his accounting job. His first attempts were failures and Pascal was discouraged from working on the project for many years. He returned to it in 1644 because of the encouragement of many people. He finished the final model in 1645 after going through more than 50 incarnations of the design, he finished the final model in 1645, Pascal himself did the selling with a few associates but because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s high price of and limited uses, sales were probably modest. He did present one to Queen Christina of Sweden and he was allowed a monopoly over it by royal decree. Although Pascal had been raised as a Catholic, later in his life, Pascal had been converted to Jansenism in 1646 and moved to a monastery i... Free Essays on Blaise Pascal Free Essays on Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal was a great mathematician who lived in 17th Century France. His mother was Antoinette Begon; she died when Blaise was three. His father, Etienne took the responsibility of bringing him up. Pascal had two sisters, Gilberte and Jacqueline. Pascal began his studies in 1635 with his reading of EuclidÃ¢â¬â¢s Elements and mastered them by age 12. This won the boy respect for his great talent in mathematics. Pascal in fact did not attend school; instead, Etienne brought him to lectures and mathematical gatherings at the Ã¢â¬Å"Academie ParsienneÃ¢â¬ nearly from its founding. At the early age of 16, Pascal began to play an active role in Ã¢â¬Å"Academie ParisienneÃ¢â¬ . There, Pascal became the principal disciple of Girard Desargues, a professor working there because he was the only one who appreciated his work in geometry. Pascal began work on conics and published several papers to do with geometry. In fact, in June 1639, Pascal has already made a significant discovery with his Ã¢â¬Å"mystical hexagramÃ¢â¬ . In 1641, he began to suffer from problems of health that delayed his research for a year, but he recovered and continued his work. In 1642, Pascal began to create a machine that would be similar to an everyday calculator to help his father with his accounting job. His first attempts were failures and Pascal was discouraged from working on the project for many years. He returned to it in 1644 because of the encouragement of many people. He finished the final model in 1645 after going through more than 50 incarnations of the design, he finished the final model in 1645, Pascal himself did the selling with a few associates but because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s high price of and limited uses, sales were probably modest. He did present one to Queen Christina of Sweden and he was allowed a monopoly over it by royal decree. Although Pascal had been raised as a Catholic, later in his life, Pascal had been converted to Jansenism in 1646 and moved to a monastery i...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Marx's objectives to individual rights - Research Paper Example However, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels are convinced otherwise, affirming that bourgeois private property is the 'final and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products, that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few'. 1 For them capitalism, which is based on the right to own private property, is beneficial only to the select few capitalists - or the bourgeoisie - who reap their benefits from the exploitation of the wage earners, the proletariat. For Marx and Engels, at least, private property rights protect the freedom of some but not only deny the freedom, but results in the exploitation, of many others. To understand this argument, it is necessary to have a first look at the basis of Marx's theory. Marx strongly believed that capitalist society consisted of two classes, the bourgeoisie, or the ruling class, and the proletariat, who are the exploited class: "To maintain its own existence private property must also m aintain the existence of the property - less working class needed to run the factories. The proletariat is compelled, however, to abolish itself on account of its miserable condition. This will require the abolition of private property - both disappear in a new synthesis that will resolve the contradiction." 2 Marx and Bourgeois Freedom The employers, or the bourgeoisie, build up their wealth through the exploitation of their workers. Under capitalism workers essentially 'own' their own labor which in one respect makes them 'free'. However, although the workers are in charge of their own labor power, in the sense that it is not owned by a master or land owner, they are not free as they are forced to sell it out in order to survive. Instead of owning the product of their own labor, this instead goes to the capitalists who in turn retain a certain amount of the value of the product for themselves and their investment. Thus capital can be defined as accumulated labor. The more Capital grows the more small businesses are put out of production. In turn they are then forced to sell their labor on the market and "all these sink gradually into the proletariat".3 So the underclass grows as more people are forced to sell their labor on the market and as a consequence the average wage is lowered, as there is more demand for less work. Marx, in justifying his position in the communist manifesto, claims that it is each personÃ¢â¬â¢s inalienable right to sell his or her labor at its true value, rather than at a value specified by those with a closer relationship to the means of production. Marx condemns the capitalist society for its maxim of 'Greed is good'. His fear for those who are materially deficient in terms of property, relying solely on their own labor value, lies in the inherent necessity in a capitalist society for the owners of production to secure property for themselves, ensuring their own livelihood whilst falling prey, at the laborers' expense, to the rava ges of greed. The end result of this, Marx argues, is that the proletariat misses out while the bourgeoisie takes all. 4 Yet those in support of capitalism argue that it is not the capitalists who are the main consumers, and thus accumulators, it is the common wage-laborer. Wages
Monday, February 3, 2020
The Importance of Providing a Quality-learning Environment for a Person with MDVI - Essay Example Teachers and families of MDVI children have a significant role to play in partnership with other organizations as early as childhood (LaVenture, 2007). Most importantly, role models should be available in this environment to help people with MDVI understand how they fit in the local society. They can be taught to work in teams and to sustain friendships. Providing a favorable environment will help these challenged individuals to overcome social awkwardness, protect themselves, and to ensure they realize their sexuality where necessary. Sarah is a twenty one year old adult with CHARGE syndrome. She has coloboma in her right eye and micropthalmia in her left. Sarah has a moderate hearing impairment and uses Makaton to communicate. She is very social and loves being around people. She has a moderate learning disability and as she has eating difficulties, her food intake needs to be monitored. Due to a heart condition, she missed a lot of schooling. Despite poor balance, Sarah likes to walk independently but when tired needs the use of her wheelchair. She is able to orientate herself well in her classroom/workshop but can get easily lost once outside. From this case study, Sarah is a MDVI young woman, who seems to associate easily with people and thus there is a high chance of her learning with ease. However, much has to be done to ensure that she takes meals and to encourage her do some activities on her own. The most motivating feature about her is that she is able to orient herself precisely in her classroom, meaning that she can develop knowledge and skills to enable her pursue her studies further. When working with people with such impairments, multidisciplinary teams such as teachers need to consider several principles such as demonstrating a number of academic studies and writing skills that are most consistent to their physical challenge.Ã
Sunday, January 26, 2020
What Is The Pre Modern Society? Human history can be divided into three phases: pre-modern, modern and post modern. There is no definite beginning or end to each of these phases; rather they merge into one another, as not all societies moved forward at the same time. Sociology and modernity have been described as closely intertwined, but it has also been argued that sociology is a product of modernity. Sociology came out of something described by Polanyi (1973) as the Great Transformation, a term which refers to social, economic, political and cultural changes, which were the cause of new forms of social life. During this piece I will discuss pre- modern society, the impact industrialisation had on society and why the study of this era is important for sociology. What is Pre- modern Society? In pre-modern society, work was not highly specialised and the number of roles necessary to produce things were relatively small, therefore the division of labour was simple when compared to modern societies. Most of the labour forces engaged in agricultural activity and produced food through subsistence farming. The majority of pre-industrial groups had standards of living not much above survival, meaning most of the population were focused on producing only enough goods for means of survival. The term pre- modern, covers a number of different societal forms: hunter-gatherer, agrarian, horticultural, pastoral and non-industrial. Pre-modern social forms have now virtually disappeared, although they are still in existence in some of todays societies. An example of a hunter- gatherer society that exists today is the Inuit people, who inhabit northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. Due to the lack of vegetation in these areas of the world, most Inuit people live on a diet of meat. Many Arctic people are extremely mobile like the feudal societies of pre- modern times, and travel around the land, often moving with the seasons, in pursuit of migratory animals. Hunting and gathering societies hunt animals and gather vegetation in order to survive. All humans were hunters and gatherers up until around 12,000 years ago, and although, these societies still exist today in some parts of the world, they are in fast decline as they are being taken over by the advance of industrial society (Macionis J. Plummer K, 2005, p.75). Hunting and gathering societies began to turn into horticultural and pastoral societies after new technology was introduced. People began to use hand tools to help them to farm the land and to work the soil in order to sow seeds. Societies living in mountainous or parched regions turned to pastoralism which is based on the domestication of animals. Some societies combined the two technologies so they could produce a variety of foods. Agrarian societies came about with the discovery of large scale farming, which involved using ploughs which were harnessed to animals. Farmers could work larger plots of land unlike the horticulturists who worked garden sized plots of land. Agrarian societies began to permanently settle and created large food surplus, which they could now transport using animal powered wagons. Increased food production provided societies with surplus materials, which meant the build up of storable produce. This represented a cultural advance for civilisation. With the development of storage, in some rare cases came some social unrest, as what could be stored could also be stolen, although is thought that in pre- modern times there was very little deviance, as communities were extremely close knit and everybody knew each other. This new technology could have also created social inequality as some families produced more goods than others. The families producing more food may have assumed positions of a uthority and privilege. Industrialisation and the making of Modern Society: In order to understand why the study of pre- modern times is vital to sociology, it is important to look to the Industrial Revolution, as this was a time of great change for European society, and the crossing over from pre- modern to modern society. Industrialisation is the process whereby social and economic change transforms a pre- industrial society into an industrial one. Until industrialism the main source of energy was humans and animals, where as mills and factories now used water, and later steam, to power machinery. Industrialism is technology that powers sophisticated machinery with advanced sources of energy (Macionis J. Plummer K, 2005, p.79). During the Industrial revolution, an economy based on manual labour was replaced by one taken over by industry and the manufacture of machinery. Rapid industrialisation cost many craft workers their jobs and scores of weavers also found themselves unemployed as they could not compete with machinery. Many unemployed workers turned their anger towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. These activists became known as Luddites and became extremely popular. The British government took drastic measures against the Luddites using the army to protect the factories. The Industrial Revolution also saw the emergence of class, urbanisation and the bad conditions in which people had to live and work. Marxism essentially began as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. As the Industrial Revolution progressed so did the gap between class structures. According to Karl Marx, industrialisation polarised society into the bourgeoisie, and the much larger proletariat. Ordinary working people found increased opportunity for employment in the mills and factories and in some cases had no choice but to move to the towns and cities in search of work. By the early 1900s up to eighty per cent of the population of Britain lived in urban centres (Kumar, 1978, cited in Bilton et al, p.28). Using the clock to time ones self, as a basis of social organisation, was an indicator of the emergence of a modern society. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries both agricultural and manufacturing labour became set by the clock in a way that was very different to pre-modern production. In pre-modern times factors such as hours of daylight set work rhythms, whereas the factories were regulated by the clock, labour was synchronised and took place for a certain number of hours each day and on particular days of the week. For the factory owners and their employees, time now equalled money. The working conditions were often strict with long working hours and a pace that was set by machinery and production. With the Industrial Revolution came an increase in population. Education was still limited and therefore children were expected to work. Child labour was appealing to employers as it was cheaper than employing an adult yet productivity was similar. The machines did not require strength to operate and there were no experienced adult labourers as the system was completely new. The majority of ordinary people were greatly affected by capitalism and industrial production. By the late 1900s Englands Black Country was one of the most industrialised parts of the United Kingdom and in the 1830s was described in the following way; The earth seems to have turned inside out. The coal. is blazing on the surface by day and by night the country is flowing with fire, and the smoke of the ironworks hangs over it. There is a rumbling and clanking of iron forges and rolling mills. Workmen covered in smut, and with fierce white eyes, are seen moving amongst the glowing iron and dull thud of the forge-hammers. (Jennings,1985 p.165) Societies were changing faster than they had ever done before and industrial societies had transformed themselves more in a century than societies had for thousands of years before. In the 19th century the invention of the railway and steamships revolutionised transport and made the world feel much smaller than it had previously. The invention of Sociology was created out of concern for a rapidly changing industrial world (Macionis J. Plummer K, 2005). Conclusion: The transition from pre- modernity into modernity was important for sociology as people began to see that society was something important to study. Some argue that this was when sociology began as the emergence of modern societies created a new intellectual world aware of its surroundings and concerned with acquisition of knowledge. As modernity came about, changes in social attitudes within society occurred making society itself interesting to others. Unlike the static pre- modern society, modern societies appear to have created many different groups, causing new and interesting communications and interactions between people. In the pre- modern era, relationships between people in society were extremely similar and perhaps uneventful and society had been static, therefore sociology was not required.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The naval officer told the Ã¢â¬Ësmall savagesÃ¢â¬â¢ that he had to look around the island but he would not be finished until just before sundown. Therefore, at sundown all the children were to meet at the Castle Rock. One of the larger savages wandered off on his own. He felt a mixture of feelings on the one hand he had been saved both from death and the island. However, he was going to be taken into larger war that has the same attitudes about civilization and power as the war on the island. Ralph found that he was wandering past the remains of burnt trees to the shelters. Sitting down against a tree he put his hand on a rock. Trying not to think about the events on the island he threw it absentmindedly into the sea. He was about to get up when he felt something else. As he drew it out he found it was an old exercise book. Opening it up on the first page he read, Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Diary.Ã¢â¬ Intrigued and not remembering a Ã¢â¬ËThomas MartinÃ¢â¬â¢ he opened it and began to read: 26th June 1957 What a day! We were still in the plane. But suddenly it gave a huge jolt I had my seat belt on but a lot of the boys fell out their seats. The plane started to loose altitude very quickly. We had been attacked by the Reds. Luckily a man with a microphone kept everybody in order and told us all to get into the escape pod. I thought I was going to have an asthma attack when the escape pod was falling down and I had to take my glasses off in case they fell off if the pod hit the ground hard. Ralph realized who was writing the diary. A wave of grief hit him as he thought how he had never known the name of his true wise friend Piggy. He felt the prickles of tears behind his eyes and a single tear made a made a clean trail through his dirt stained face. Picking up the book he carried on reading. When the pod hit the ground all the boys got out and ran madly into the forest I tried to stop them because I thought that the grown-ups would want to have a meeting. However, they ran off shouting so quickly they did not hear me. Although I began to run after them I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t because of my asthma. The first boy I met was a little older then I but I still went to talk to him. Immediately he started saying Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any grown ups anywhereÃ¢â¬ . He seemed to be pleased when we decided that he was probably right. Personally I did not feel pleased about this because grown-ups are important because they would have tea and discuss what to do and make rules and put everybody in order. I then realized that we would have to do all these things ourselves. First we would need a leader I had a feeling this boy would be a good leader. I know that I could never be a leader because I do not look the part. Therefore if he could be the leader it would be useful for me to make friends with him so that I could help him. So I asked his name but he was not very responsive when I was talking to him and he did not even ask for my name in return. Unlike me Ralph seemed to accept his new surroundings quite easily. I know that it will be hard for me on this island because of my asthma and I can not move or see the branches well. As Ralph was not being very responsive I decided to tell him a secret to hopefully help with our friendship. But I had poorly judged RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s character because as soon as I had told him my dreaded nickname he started to laugh and run about shouting Ã¢â¬Å"Piggy, PiggyÃ¢â¬ before I could tell him my real name. I had a combination of feelings because even though I was pleased that Ralph had started to recognise me, I was worried that he might tell everyone. So I made it very clear to him that I did not want anyone to know this name. Although I thought that Ralph would be a good leader he did not think much because he just believed that his father would come to rescue him. He did not think of how his father would find him. That is why it is important that he has help from me if he going to be leader. If we think that we may stay here till we die then we are prepared for the worst and anything else is better. When I realized that we could be on the island for a long time it was obvious that we needed organisation. So we were very lucky when Ralph saw the conch. The conch is going to be very important on the island because it will help us organise things. I was so excited when we found it and very pleased because I knew what it was and how it worked. It was very important that Ralph himself blew the conch because he would establish himself as leader straight away. When the boys started coming to the call of the conch I started asking them their names because in a civilised society everybody knows each others name and it is good for organisation. Then the choir arrived. They were marching like the army and were lead by a red headed boy, Jack Merridew. Immediately he seemed unsatisfied and angry because Ralph was not the Ã¢â¬Å"man with a trumpetÃ¢â¬ . As soon as I saw him I thought that he was a cruel savage boy because even though it was very hot he made the choir stand and he did not let them sit down until one of them fainted because of the heat. I felt that I could not ask any names from the choir because or the atmosphere created by Jack Merridew. My suspicions about Jack were confirmed when he said to me Ã¢â¬Å"Shut up, FattyÃ¢â¬ when I was telling him about the names that we had found. This shocked me there are not many people who as soon as they meet somebody insult them. But once again in my life I heard everybody laughing at me. Ralph immediately defended me but instead of helping me he made it worst by telling them my dreaded nickname even though I had asked him not to tell anybody. All the boys laughed at me louder this time. Why does this always happen to me I am never nasty to any one but still children always seem to leave me out and think that it is ok to laugh at me. After what seemed like hours the laughter died down and Ralph suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"we ought to have a chief to decide thingsÃ¢â¬ . With simple arrogance Jack stated that he should be chief. This boyÃ¢â¬â¢s character was getting worst and worst with every word he said. For a horrible moment I thought that Jack would become chief but then we decided to have a vote. Although Ralph won the vote there was still the problem that Jack had had some supporters therefore RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s position of chief was not totally confirmed. However, as soon as Ralph was chief he made what I think will be a huge mistake. By giving Jack the choir that gives RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest opponent for leader power which could prove dangerous. Then Ralph decided who would search the island with him. He did not pick me so I asked him if I could go and he said Ã¢â¬Å"Your no good on a job like thisÃ¢â¬ . This along with telling everybody my horrible nickname really hurt me. So I tried to tell him how much heÃ¢â¬â¢d hurt me. He did not even understand what I was talking about at first but when he did realize he was a bit nicer. But this confirms what I thought about Ralph; he does not think before he does something. A harsh bird cry distracted RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s reading. He went through in his mind what he had just read. He knew that it was all true. It was uncanny how many things that Piggy had hinted could happen had come into reality. Piggy who was almost blind to his immediate surroundings had special understanding of the future which no other boy could see. Ralph looked up. It was getting near to sun down. If he did not start walking back soon he would be late. So he got up and walked still reading. 21st July 1957 I still can not believe that some of the children believe in the beast. There is absolutely no prove also it is impossible. Today seemed at first quite normal I was trying to talk to Ralph about making sundials but he started being sarcastic and told me to Ã¢â¬Å"Shut up.Ã¢â¬ Throughout my entire life including on the island kids have been like that to me but still I can not get used to it. The only thing that has changed is I no longer fight back I just let kids be horrible to me and I hope that they will get bored. As every day goes past I feel that I am becoming detached from everybody and like normal IÃ¢â¬â¢m ending up all on my own. Ralph was still trying to ignore me but suddenly he jumped up shouting Ã¢â¬Å"Smoke! Smoke!Ã¢â¬ I had no idea what he was talking about because I could not see any smoke. Then I realized that Ralph had seen a ship, but because of my poor sight I could not see it. I had no idea what was going on. When I finally saw the ship I could not see any of our smoke. Ralph again was clinging onto a childish hope that Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll see our smokeÃ¢â¬ . But he was being too optimistic. Hopping was not good enough. What we had to do was check the fire because We werenÃ¢â¬â¢t helping anything by just standing watching the ship. It took a long time for Ralph to realize this but when he did he ran off like usual without thinking. He did not think how he was going to re-light the fire if it was out. He should have thought that he would need my specs and I could not run after him because of my asthma. Ralph had already run along was before he thought about this. I had tried to run after him but there was no chance of me keeping up with him. As I ran up the hill my breathing became more and more difficult and I my asthma nearly started. When I finally reached the top I hear Ralph say Ã¢â¬Å"They let the bloody fire outÃ¢â¬ . Grown ups would not have let the fire they would have kept it going. We had been so close to being rescued and getting off this island before things really started to get bad. Now the chance has gone and we may not get another one for years. I had a good idea why there was nobody watching the fire, it had to be something to with him, Jack Merridew. My suspicions were confirmed when I saw a procession led by him coming up the hill. In the group I saw the twins who were supposed to be watching the fire. As the procession came closer I noticed how some of them looked almost inhuman with there painted faces and chanting Ã¢â¬Å"Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood.Ã¢â¬ They had a dead pig and they were looking so pleased with themselves. Suddenly the thought that even now I could be on my way home to my auntie came over me and I almost burst into tears. Jack and his hunters had betrayed Ralph by abandoning the fire. Even though Ralph had carefully explained how keeping the fire going was the most important job on the island. As Jack approached I wondered how Ralph was going to deal with this. Without a doubt there would be a confrontation between them. Jack was talking wildly about how he had killed the pig. He could not contain his joy at the power he felt Ã¢â¬Å"when they closed in on the struggling pigÃ¢â¬ . Jumping around, re-enacting the killing he was totally lost in his own morbid world. Ralph said Ã¢â¬Å"You let the fire outÃ¢â¬ twice before started to stop talking. But when Ralph said to Jack in a savage voice Ã¢â¬Å"They might have seen us. We might have gone home.Ã¢â¬ Ralph had made the possibilities of the ship real to me and my anger reached peak. I could not contain myself any longer and I shouted at Jack Ã¢â¬Å"You and your blood Jack Merridew! You and your hunting! We might have gone homeÃ¢â¬ But before I could finish Ralph interrupted me. I did not mind this because RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s grief was equal to mine. He started giving Jack exactly what he needed a talking down. Ralph needed to assert his power as leader. But he seemed a bit lost for words. Jack started trying to make poor excuses like Ã¢â¬Å"The job was too much. We needed everyone.Ã¢â¬ My anger got the better of me again. I started shouting at him saying Ã¢â¬Å"You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t ought to let the fire out. You said youÃ¢â¬â¢d keep the smoke going.Ã¢â¬ As soon as I said this I heard other hunters agreeing with me. For a moment I was pleased as now some of JackÃ¢â¬â¢s own supporters were turning against him. For the first time on the island I felt that I could stand up to Jack. This did not last very long. Seeing some of his hunters agreeing with me, of all people, drove Jack to violence. He hit me as hard as he could in my stomach. Through a haze of pain I heard Jack shouting Ã¢â¬Å"You would, would you? Fatty!Ã¢â¬ Then I felt his fist hit my head. By this time the pain was not a problem I was already in tears. But I felt my specs being thrown from my head. Nobody else understands that on an island without my specs I probably would not survive. So I was desperate to find my specs. In the end Simon gave them back to me. I always think that there is something different about Simon but I can not quite put my finger on it. From the first time I had seen Jack I thought that he was a cruel savage boy and this was shown by his violent reaction. Jack was not annoyed because he had stopped us being rescued but because some of his own supporters agreed that he had made an awful error. This made him look bad. So he lashed out attacking me because I am weaker than him. The whole situation was worst when I saw that one of the lenses was cracked. Apart from the glasses being broken this was the next worst thing. Now I only have only one eye. I had never been so angry, I was not thinking straight I just said and did what ever came into my head. But ever bit of anger was directed at him. I thought Jack was going to hit me again so I hid behind a rock. I was barely aware of what Jack was doing but I could hear the other kids laughing, at me. Yet again it showed to me how immature all the kids on the island are, if we were like grown ups Jake would not get them laughing with him but he would get told off. Jack then proceeded to apologise. But he specifically said Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry. About the fire, I mean.Ã¢â¬ He made it perfectly clear that he was not sorry about hitting me and breaking my specs. But by apologising I could see that most of the boys thought that Jack had done a grown up thing and forgave him instantly. I could not believe that he had in fact gained respect by stopping us being rescued then apologising for it. I could see Ralph was thinking the same things as me. Also I noticed how Ralph was becoming a better leader because again he needed to show Jack that he was the chief. He did this by standing in the place where was easier to build the fire forcing Jack to build it in a less convenient spot. Then Ralph came to take my specs. Normally I am very protective of my specs but I felt that I could trust him. I had never felt trust towards anyone except my auntie and for the first time I realized that Ralph was my friend. Jack started to cook the meat. I could tell that he wanted to show the power he had by not giving me any of it. I suppose Ralph and I should not have eaten the meat but just the smell made my mouth water. Jack was not going to give me any but Simon shared some with me. I felt a wave of gratitude towards him. He was definitely different from the other boys; he seemed to try to do the right the thing what ever the consequence. Jack was just about to get angry with Simon when Rodger started telling the story of how they killed the pig. Jack could not bear his story to be told by anybody but himself. So he interrupted Rodger and started telling the story of how he outwitted and possessed the power over a living creature. The hunters started dancing shouting Ã¢â¬Å"Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in.Ã¢â¬ Ralph and I stood outside the circle. I felt detached from the group again but at least Ralph was with me. Watching them dancing around the fire made them look more like savages with no rules or discipline. If Ralph loses this power struggle against Jack I think that it is possible that we could all become savages. Ralph tripped over a tree root. This broke his concentration and he looked at his surroundings. Such was his attention to the diary he had been walking without thinking where he was going. To his right were some charred sticks and he realized that this was where JackÃ¢â¬â¢s camp fire had been but the sand by the water was smooth again with no traces of violence. The thoughts of that terrible night, that appalling murder, came flooding back to him. Trying to suppress the memory he began to think about what he had just read in PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s diary. There had been many things that he had never understood about Piggy. He had felt guiltier as he had read on because he had never really thought that PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings were seriously hurt when other kids, including him, were horrible to him. Like all the boys he had just got used to being horrible to Piggy. He made sure he was heading in the right direction and carried on walking with his nose in the diary. 14th September 1957 I am worried about Ralph. He has taken the accident with Simon very badly and if he carries on thinking about it he could go mad. He must forget his conscience that is troubling him. The best way to deal with these things is not to think or talk about them. It was an unfortunate accident, Simon was batty anyway and he should not have been crawling around in the dark. Ralph and I were on the outside so we did not so we did not do anything wrong. Also it was not our fault all this has all happened because of him. If he had not kept reminding everyone about the beast and making another tribe the accident would have never happened. Anyway we cannot change the past so there is pointless destroying ourselves by thinking about it. I have tried throughout my time on the island to think what the grown ups would have done. But if the grown ups were here none of this would have happened. When I said to Ralph Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re still chiefÃ¢â¬ he laughed. I see that having the conch has a lot less meaning now Jack Merridew is chief of his own tribe. There are hardly any biguns left now, only Sam and Eric. Ralph would not listen to my reasoning about the accident but at least he did agree to tell Sam and Eric we had left early. By saying this it would avoid us having to discuss the accident. When we went to see Sam and Eric I felt strangely embarrassed in front of them. When we told them that we had left early I could see that by the way we all spoke, moved and kept repeating Ã¢â¬Å"we left earlyÃ¢â¬ that we had all witness the accident. I gave Ralph my specs to re-light the fire before he even asked for them. Now I definitely felt that I could trust him more than anyone. Ralph was still very preoccupied with thoughts of Simon and he started saying how Simon Ã¢â¬Å"said something about a dead man.Ã¢â¬ So I tried to get RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s thought away from the accident to the fire. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not sure whether Ralph was still preoccupied with the accident or that the island was getting to him but when Sam said Ã¢â¬Å"what is the good?Ã¢â¬ meaning the fire Ralph seemed like he could not remember. I had to remind him. But now with only four of us it is going to be impossible to keep the fire lit all the time. So I gave the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"We can light it every morningÃ¢â¬ because nobody will see the smoke in the dark. With only Ralph, Sam and Eric to speak to I felt more confident in making suggestions because I was less lightly to get laughed at. But yet again I got the impression that I was the only person who really gave thought to the situation. As I was going to sleep Ralph for no real reason asked me if I was Ã¢â¬Å"all right?Ã¢â¬ It did not take much for him to ask but it made me feel that I was wanted and that Ralph was glad that I was with him. I was very content. But this did not last. Some noise woke me form my sleep. At first I thought that it was nothing. I just thought that I must have woken because after being on the island for a length of time I had tended to start out of sleep for the tiniest noise, like a hunted pig. I had a sudden desperate desire stronger than ever before to get off the island. I hated living in fear like an animal. I said to Ralph Ã¢â¬Å"We got to get out of this.Ã¢â¬ But Ralph sniggered at the thought of being rescued; it sounded like he had almost given up hope and my idea was stupid. We talked for a bit and Ralph had just stopped laughing at me and was going back to sleep when I heard what was definitely a footstep snapping a stick. With out thinking I said to Ralph Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s come. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s real.Ã¢â¬ I believed it was the beast and I had never been so terrified in all my life. I started breathing hard and then my throat seemed to be growing thinner and it was becoming so hard to breathe. I realised that my asthma was starting. I was right. It was the beast, Jack Merridew had come. I thought he had come for the conch. I could not see anything in the dark but I only cared about being able to breathe again. Kids kept tripping over me and fists were flying everywhere but I barely noticed as I was slowly suffocating. The only thing that really bothered me was when I realized that I had put my specs on the floor before I went to bed and they could well get trodden on. Even with my asthma I started looking for them with my hand because if I did survive and my specs were broken my life would hardly be worth living anyway. When the fight had finished Ralph was the first person to ask Ã¢â¬Å"HowÃ¢â¬â¢s Piggy?Ã¢â¬ I felt that Ralph was worried about my safety. As the other boys were talking about how the fight had gone I continued searching for my specs. But when Ralph said that Ã¢â¬Å"They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the conchÃ¢â¬ their whole plan dawned on me. The beast had not been after the conch but my specs. I felt just as bad when I had my asthma. The thieving beast, Jack Merridew, had blinded me. Now it would always be night for me on the island. The beast had done the worst thing to me, apart from killing me. It did not care that I was now blind and my life would be misery. In fact it had never cared how I felt from the first time I met him. I tried to calm myself down and think. Grown ups would not have let this happen now we have to put it right, and go and talk to the savages like grown ups. Tomorrow I am going to face Jack Merridew. Ralph sat down on the sand and put his head in his hands. He knew that before he had read the diary he hardly knew anything about Thomas Martin. He definitely agreed that Piggy and he had grown very close on the island and he was pleased that Piggy had also felt the same. He felt so guilty because of how he had told everybody PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s deadly nickname. For some reason he felt that everything would have been different for Piggy if he had just thought before he had spoken. Piggy had been the only boy on the island who had sense, who knew what should have been done but he was ignored. Piggy had endured all the names he had been called and the disrespect he had got from everyone. Everybody had just got used to being nasty to him. He had been the bravest boy on the island. Piggy, who has been the brunt of ridicule, who was physically weak, had shown his real strength by defending what he believed in and facing the beast, Jack Merridew. Two questions came into RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Ã¢â¬Å"What was he going to with diary?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"What would Piggy have wanted him to do with the diary?Ã¢â¬ Ralph remembered how Piggy had reacted after SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, Ralph. We got to forget this. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t do no good thinking about itÃ¢â¬ he had said. At that time Ralph had not understood but now he felt sure what Piggy would have wanted him to do. Picking up the diary he threw it as far as he could into the sea. He watched it stay afloat for a moment. Then become waterlogged and sink. The memories of the island were already fading.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Profitablity Ratio Analysis This analysis ratio based on FAME report and annual report of Thortons (PLC) from 2007 to 2010. 1. Gross Profit Margin During period 2007-2010, Thorntons was achieved the highest gross profit margin in 2007. It was increased the sales/revenue 5. 3% (from ? 176. 60m to 186. 00 m). In 2008 the sales was increased 11. 9% (from ? 186. 00m to 208. 12 m) however the gross profit margin was decreased due to the high cost of good sales compare to previous year which was increased 19. 7%. In financial report 2009, the gross profit was declined from 105. 05 m to 104. 969m and declined of gross profit margin from 50. 5% to 48. 87$. In 2010, there was increased in gross profit margin though the sales was decreased from the previous year. In terms of performance against its competitors in similar industry, the performance of Thortons is relatively higher during period 2007-2010 (Figure. 1). The performance of other competitors, Dunhills, only could achieve the 42. 16% in 2010. Compare to its competitors , it was indicated that Thorntons has high gross profit margin, meaning that Thortons has high production efficiency.Having High gross profit margin, Thorntons could pay its operating expense, tax , employee benefits etc. 2. Operating Profit Margin In view of its Operating Profit Margin, Thorntons performance was increased in two consecutive years from 2007 to 2008 with ratio 3. 81 % and 4. 03%. This increase in operating margin was followed by declining in two consecutive years 2009 and 2010 with ratio 3. 77% and 2. 86%. These declined of operating profit margin due to increased in the expenses, especially in employee benefit and inventories expenses which continuously rose from 2007 to 2010.In addition the strategy of company to introduce many new products, increased our multi-channel offer and invested significant sums in new point of sale systems and factory automation has increased the cost. Furthermore the economic downturn from 2009-2010 wa s pressured the company to achieve better income. Compare to the ThorntonsÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors, the performance of operating margin is less than Dunhills which achieved operating margin average in four years 16. 8% far above Thorntons and Farrero. The decreased of operating margin was happened with Cadbury which fall from 2007-2008. . RETURN ON SHAREHOLDER FUND (ROSF) ROSF measures the profit against total equity invests by share holder. In this regard, the calculation of profit is using profit before tax while other calculation, using profit after tax. Thorntons has stability performance in the middle range to returning the shareholder funds from 2007 up to 2009 compare to its competitors. However the ROSF was decreased in 2010 due to decrease in profit before tax 2. 4% from 2009 to 2010. On the otherhand, Thorntons still achieved Basic earnings per share which increased by 20. % to 6. 5p (2009: 5. 4p) and its Board was recommended a final dividend of 4. 10p (2009: 4. 85p), making the total dividend for the year 6. 05p (2009: 6. 0) Compare to its competitors, the ratio of ROSF of Thorntons is in the middle level and relatively stable. The company generated profit in continuously 4 years with high level achieved in 2009 with profit attributable to share holder ? 6. 068 m. Cadbury was slump down in 2008 but it was achieved the high ROSF in 2009 almost 90% of other competitors with profit attributable to share holder ? 68. 55 m . 4. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED(ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) is measured the operating profit generated against the long term capital in the business. ROCE ratio of Thorntons was increased from 2007 to 2008, and decreased from 2008 to 2010. Though Thorntons has successfully reduced the Net debt since 2008 to 2010 , however the low achievement is influenced by decreasing in operating profit from 2008 to 2010. Compare to its competitors, the ROCE ratio of Thorntons was in the middle achievement lower than Cadbury in 2009 to 2010 .Cadbury was in the negative ROCE in 2008. Dunhills has relatively constant in its ROCE ratio and close to Thorntons in ROCE ratio. If it is further reviewed both Thorntons and Dunhill has very close in average operating profit during period 2007-2010. RECOMENDATION Considering evaluation and analysis of profitability ratios of Thorntons during period 2007-2010 and compare its performance against the competitors in its industry , the following is list of recommendation that could be considered by Thorntons: 1.Since the Revenue (sales) over the years is relatively flat and higher compare to its competitor, it is recommended to reduced the cost of good sales to increase the gross profit by identifying the possibility to reduce the cost from its supply chain operations from procuring raw materials, reducing number of inventories, optimization in line production and goods stock, reviewing the networks selling and model of distribution.It is indicated and might be high opportunity to gai n sales revenue by putting right model of contract sales to anticipate the seasonal conditions. 2. To increase the Operating profit, it is recommended that Thortons to reduce the administration expenses or divested especially in outlet which is indicated unprofitable and focus on the optimum selling and distribution model. 3.Increase revenue by continuously develop new innovative product to generate differentiation from its competitors and maintain the domination of market share. Reference: FAME Report http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/annual_report_Final_sep_2010. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/ar09. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/Thorntons_AR2008. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/Thorntons_AR07. pdf